Friday, May 22, 2020
The 1920s was a decade of economic prosperity for the country. In 1923, the aggregate income of the country totaled $74.3 billion. This number expanded by 17 percent to $89 billion by the end of 1929. The prosperity generated during this decade remained chiefly in the pockets of those whose incomes were in the top one-tenth of one percent of the population. According to a study done by the Brookings Institute, in 1929 the top 0.1 percent of Americans had a combined income equal to the bottom 42 percent (McElvaine, 1984 p. 38). At the time of the market crash, four-fifths of the nation s citizens had no savings account but the highest earners, the 0.1 percent, had more than one-third of all savings (McElvaine, 1984 p. 38). To illustrate this discrepancy of wealth, automobile industrialist Henry Ford serves as a good example. Ford s reported annual income was in excess of $14 million (Baughman, 1996) when the average annual income for a worker was $750. In today s money, Ford s annua l salary would exceed $350 million (Hoffman, 1992 p. 155). The economic divide between rich and poor grew during the 1920s mainly because the manufacturing output (production) rose by more than a third during this decade. We will write a custom essay sample on Main Causes of the Great Depression or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page The nation s economy was weakened by an over-supply of products. All economies are stimulated by consumer spending. The affluent bank the greatest proportion of their income but the lower earners must spend all of their income on basic necessities such as food, clothes, housing, and services. When a disproportionate part of the country s wealth is in the pockets of the wealthy, an insufficient number of dollars are being circulated throughout every stage of commerce.
Sunday, May 10, 2020
The purpose of this experiment was to perform a wittig reaction, the horner-emmons wittig specifically, reacting an aldehyde with an ylide to make an alkene. This particular variation of the wittig reaction has several advantages: It gives only the trans product; it uses a much milder base that is easier to handle; and it gives a water soluble byproduct which is easy to separate from the product. The reason that these advantages occur is a change in the structure of the ylide. Instead of a tripheylphosphine ylide, we use a diethylphosphonate ylide. The protons are much more acidic and its byproduct is negatively charged. The reason why we chose to create trans-stilbene is become of its many practical applications. Stilbene exists asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This modification is similar to a standard Wittig reaction in that the first step, which has already been done for you, is the reaction of a trialkyl phosphite with a suitable alkyl halide as shown below in two steps: In the first step the trialkyl phosphate acts as a nucleophile and, in a typical Sn2 reaction, forms a phosphonium salt. The salt is unstable and a halide ion X displaces R in the Sn2 manner to form a dialkylphosphonate. It is the phosphonate that, in the presence of base, is converted to a Wittig-like reagent. Normally the Wittig reagent is an ylid and neutral, but the modified Wittig is analogous to the carbanion of an aldol intermediate. Due to its resonance forms, the phosphonate anion is able to attack the carbonyl much like acarbanion in an aldol reaction to give an oxyanion species. This is where the analogy with the aldol reaction fails. The oxyanion undergoes a reaction analogous to nucleophilic substitution at an unsaturated center to form the olefin, normally as the E isomer, and a water soluble phosphonate anion. In this particular experiment, diethyl benzylphosphonate is used with benzaldehyde as the carbonyl component. Since phase transfer conditions are used, we can u se a weaker base, the hydroxide ion. The reactivity o the anion formed is very high, resulting in excellent yields of trans-stilbene. The trans form of Stilbene is more favored than the sterically hindered cis form. AlthoughShow MoreRelatedPreparation Of The ( 2 Nitrophenyl ) Acrylate Using The Wittig Reaction1287 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages3-(2-Nitrophenyl)acrylate Utilizing the Wittig Reaction Introduction: The Wittig reaction, named after Georg Wittig, produces an alkene from an aldehyde or ketone reacting with a phosphonium ylide (a Wittig reagent). The Wittig reaction is typically stereoselective, which makes the Wittig reagents more difficult to work with but use of the Wittig with different allyl substituents prove to make the Wittig more versatile which can lead to the synthesis of a wide range of alkenes, styrenes, stilbenes, and 1,3-dienes which
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
It was a cold winterÃ¢â¬â¢s day, the snow lay thick on the ground but surrounding the house there were no footsteps left from visitors bringing packages on the cold icy morning. We were the only visitors calling on this freezing day.IÃ¢â¬â¢d arrived at the house many times before, even dreamt about it as a smaller child, it was the kind you read about in books. We will write a custom essay sample on Short story: The Musician or any similar topic only for you Order Now Well I say big it was bigger than ours but then most houses in the county were. It was white and wooden with a broken swing on the porch, maybe a little run down but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t anything that a few hours of hard grafting wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fix. Well the drains they leaked too but I could live with that, as in the summer when I came walking down here with my friends I could smell daisies and all kinds of flowers growing in the fields. We always peeped through the window at the man inside. He interested us so much,not that we ever saw him but all the stories that weÃ¢â¬â¢d heard about him from our parents about the myths of his life before telling us we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t come and torture that nice old man, well what were we to do? We were just curious. We approached the house as we did each weekend with a bag of stonesÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Inside the house sits a musician trying desperately to write a decent song a song thatÃ¢â¬â¢s listenable to. He waits in his rocking chair swaying to and fro, pipe in one hand pen in the other, desperately searching for the right words to touch the paper. As he begins he names his song Ã¢â¬Å"The Song of The WorldÃ¢â¬ Why? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know; maybe he thought it would bring hope to his sad lonely life or perhaps he could think of nothing better. The man lives alone. He dreams of days gone by and wishes that he could relive those moments of his youth. Nobody visits. Nobody calls. The grey trees outside growl a lonely kind of call to the man as if trying to tempt him outside so they can warn him of something. The floorboards below him creak as if there is another presence in the house. There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t of course. There never is. He used to have so much, wife, children but now he has little more than a hovel. He visits the graveyard every day and has done since the accident. Many myths have built up around him in the town. Well thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just what our town is like; every ones business is your own. No one ever wanted to help him but still he continues to create beautiful music for everybody. How do I know so much about him? Well I am the first visitor heÃ¢â¬â¢s had for twenty years. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t speak much but when he does he seems upset as if he is recalling the past, the past no one has cared about for what seem like an eternity. The first smile I have seen from him is after heÃ¢â¬â¢s succeeded with the first line and as he continues his smile grows. The phone continues to lie dormant. No relatives call, No friends from days gone by give him a second thought, perhaps itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to forget he exists. He moves his pipe, puts down his pen. Slowly he stands the smile no longer on his face. He begins to weep. I am not sure what to do till he finishes crying. He describes how people used to want to listen to his music though now they prefer to make up stories and throw things at his home. Suddenly I was wrapped with guilt; it had only been a bit of harmless fun I decided I was going to help the man whom I had tormented for so long. Each day during my summer holidays I would take fresh pies from my mother to him and I would listen to his stories. I would not know how much was real and how much was make-believe but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really care we became best of friends and now he was happier he found it easier to write his songs again. One day I stole his songs and took them to a recording company. I came running back eager to tell him IÃ¢â¬â¢d got him a recording contract. Apparently I had broken his trust. That was the last I ever saw of him. He felt heed sooner be as he was. Even so, after that summer we never threw things at his house again. How to cite Short story: The Musician, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Show How Transactions in Derivatives Can Be Used to Either Hedge Risk or to Open Speculative Positions. Essay Example
Show How Transactions in Derivatives Can Be Used to Either Hedge Risk or to Open Speculative Positions. Essay Economics of the Financial System Show how transactions in derivatives can be used to either hedge risk or to open speculative positions. Derivatives have become popular in response to the increasing volatility and complexity of financial markets. A diverse range of new financial products have been created to enable market participants to handle the risks arising from trade in securities and to speculate on future expected movements in securities prices, without direct trade in the assets themselves. Derivative contract creates a promise to deliver or trade an underlying product at some time in the future. The contract gives one party a claim on an underlying asset or cash value of the asset, at a fixed date in the future. The other party is contractually bound to meet the corresponding liabilities. Financial derivatives are traded on organized market such as LIFFE (London International Financial Futures Exchange) and through the intermediation of the clearing house system, there is more flexibility of exchange, and the risk of credit default is reduced. The two parties need not know each other they only have to satisfy the exchange that they are creditworthy to transact. The initial purpose of derivative contracts was to allow traders to hedge risk which they faced in the cash market. Two of the most popular derivative instruments are financial futures and options. Financial futures commit the parties to buy or sell underlying assets at set prices on an agreed future date. The benefit of financial futures in its most basic form can be exemplified by a poultry farmer who is worried about the risk of price fluctuations in eggs for instance. He knows in 8 months he will sell a certain quantity of eggs. We will write a custom essay sample on Show How Transactions in Derivatives Can Be Used to Either Hedge Risk or to Open Speculative Positions. specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Show How Transactions in Derivatives Can Be Used to Either Hedge Risk or to Open Speculative Positions. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Show How Transactions in Derivatives Can Be Used to Either Hedge Risk or to Open Speculative Positions. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer He can hedge against this risk by selling (going short) an eight month Ã¢â¬Å"futureÃ¢â¬ in eggs. The Ã¢â¬Å"futureÃ¢â¬ will consist of a standard amount of chicken to be exchanged in eight months, at an agreed fixed price on the day the Ã¢â¬Å"futureÃ¢â¬ is sold. The agent buying the eggs goes long, and is bound by contract to purchase the eggs in 8 months. A premium reflecting the risk of price fluctuation would be charged by the agent. If all goes well, the rate of profit on future contract can be very high but not without considerable risk. Investing in securities expose investors to many risks, the most important is the risk of an unexpected fall in the value of an investment. Likewise, not investing also exposes them to opportunity risk; the risk that future prices of portfolio of asset would rise thereby making it more expensive to acquire. Derivatives market offer investors an efficient way of managing some of the risks incurred in investment by purchasing derivative instruments. This allows them to attain desired adjustment to risk without having to trade in the underlying securities and sometimes gaining a profit. Hedging has become increasing popular as it helps investors to protect against the future value of their portfolio. An investor with a portfolio of cash, bonds and shares can take out a hedge to protect the future sale price of her portfolio by selling a corresponding amount of the appropriate futures contract. Risk could be hedged through options or future contracts. Hedging through future contracts involves taking a position in financial futures contract that will incur a gain to offset a loss in their existing investment portfolio. For example, Amana Mutual Fund manages a large portfolio of stocks. The portfolio manager speculates the prices of stock will fall over the coming month but will increase again after that time. They would like to hedge their portfolio against a loss over that period. A stock index futures contract with a month to settlement date is offered on the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock index at an index level of 20,000. Amana chooses to sell a futures contract on this index because it reckons that this index is strongly correlated with its existing stock portfolio. In a month, at the stipulated settlement date, Stanford will purchase the same contract. If stock prices plunge over this period, the index will fall as well, and so will the futures contract on the index in response. Amana will profit on its future position, because the future price paid at which the index is sold will be less than price paid for the index at settlement date. After a month, the stock market falls as anticipated, and the futures price of the DJIA is at an index level of 19,000. DJIA futures contract are rated at ? 10 the DJIA index, so Amana stands to gain. Sold DJIA futures for 20,000; receives 20,000 times ? 10 =? 00,000 Purchased DJIA futures for 19,000; owes 19,000 times ? 10 =? 190,000 Gain is ? 200,000 ? 190,000 = ? 10,000 This shows that Amana benefits from selling a DJIA futures contract. Amana has gained from a market decline, which can partially counterbalance the loss on its existing stock portfolio. However, to hedge a huge stock of portfolio, Amana would have to take a short position that had a value equal to the size of its entire stock po rtfolio. Options give one party the right, but not the obligation, to buy (or sell) at a set price on an agreed future date. Future Contracts are a means of avoiding risk but at the cost of eliminating opportunity. A trader may prefer to hedge risks through options so he can take advantage of an unexpected upswing. If hedgers of an equity portfolio sell futures contracts against their position to protect their portfolio and see the stock market go up rather than down as they presumed, they would not be able to take advantage of the upswing. It is therefore advisable to use future contracts when the investor is certain of future outcome as the contract fixes the value of an asset. However, hedging via options is more expensive as it protects from downside loss while leaving upside potentials open with the right but no obligation to purchase asset at a fixed price. Derivatives allow firms to hedge against security prices and interest rate movements, the latter being the most actively traded future contract used by banks and treasury managers. A pension fund manager holds an equity portfolio which closely resembles the US stock market in its compositions. If he thinks the US market is going to fall and wishes to turn his portfolio into cash. He has two choices, he could either sell shares which would not be as profitable because share prices might be depressed if it is a large portfolio plus it is time consuming. Or she could simply sell stock index futures against her portfolio. If accurate, the loss incurred on her equity portfolio will be counterbalanced by a profit on her financial futures position. Derivatives reduce the cost of protection through sophisticated risk management. Firms that are adversely affected by interest rate movements can take particular position in derivative securities to offset the effect of interest rate movement thereby reducing risk. By coming into a Ã¢â¬Ëforward rate agreementÃ¢â¬â¢ a company treasurer can fix the cost of borrowing which will be required on some future date, thus avoiding the risk of fluctuating interest rates in the prevailing period. Interest rate future contracts can be used to match the interest rate characteristics of the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s asset and liabilities portfolios. Market makers can hedge the risk resulting from significant positions in equities or bonds by buying offsetting contracts in equity or interest rate futures. Interest rate futures specify the amount of the notional bond and its interest- rate coupon, for instance a ? 50,000 nominal 15-year treasury bond with a 10 per cent coupon. Traders using futures to hedge against risk to which they are exposed in the cash market are seeking to lock into existing exchange or interest rates on future transactions. Once a firm has traded out of its open position in the cash market it no longer needs the hedge in the futures market. Howe ver, the use of futures to hedge to hedge against interest rates for instance can give rise to basis risk. Basis risk is the risk that fluctuations in future prices will differ from movement in the price of risk being hedged. Firms are also faced with exchange rate risks, in the absence of fixed exchange rates or monetary unions, firms must take action to protect themselves against these risks by taking out contracts which carry the opposite risk to that which they face in the underlying market. Another advantage of financial futures contract is that they offer both traders and investors the ability to take a short position in the underlying security; sell something they do not have. Traders may think a financial market is falling, by selling future contracts and buying them back later after the price has fallen they would be able to gain profit in a bear market. Derivatives help to combat adverse effects of volatile commodity prices on the economy as forward prices tend to be less volatile than spot prices. Since the spot price of a security can be offset by the sale of future contracts, the risk of holding securities is neutralized. Hedging is the basic motivation for a lot of businesses trading in financial derivatives market. Nonetheless, speculation is just as popular as derivatives allow firms and investors to take positions in the securities on the basis of their expectations of movements in the underlying financial asset. In other words, derivatives are instruments that allow market agents seeking profit gain to gamble on movements in the prices of other instruments without being required to trade in them. Furthermore, speculation provides liquidity in the markets and enables it to operate efficiently. Speculative positions are required to offset any imbalance which may arise from hedging transactions, and active speculation in response to small price movements ensures that any temporary imbalance would not lead to a drastic price change thereby reducing volatility. Derivative markets respond to information quicker than cash market. Therefore it allows speculators to predict with accuracy cash market prices and return of their investment. For example, a speculator who presumed that interest rate was likely to rise or a currencyÃ¢â¬â¢s value decline would go short in the particular asset by selling a future contract. Derivatives permit traders to build an open position with speed, traders usually close this position when they have achieved profit objective. If anticipated profits are unlikely, they cut losses before delivery date. Investors could either purchase call or put options for speculative purposes. Call options are bought by investors who speculate a rise in price of underlying stock. An investor pays the option premium and becomes the owner of a call option he is entitled to the right to purchase stock at the exercise price up to the time of expiration date. The advantage of this is that investors have secured a price to be paid for stocks and therefore gain a profit in secondary market of stock prices rise. Tayo purchased a call option on British Telecoms (BT) Plc. for $3 per share, with an exercise price of $75 per share. She decides to exercise her option at the expiration date if the market stock price is above $75 at the time. Tayo wants to find out what her possible profit outcomes are per share under the different prices of Boots plc. stock. Possible Outcomes for Investment in a Call Option Possible price of boots plc stock at expiration($)| Premium paid($)| Amount Received from Exercising Option($)| Profit share from investment($)| 71| 3| Option not exercised| -4| 76| 3| 1| -2| 78| 3| 3| 0| 82| 3| 7 | 4| 85| 3| 10| 7| At any price above $75 but below $78, Tayo will exercise the call option but make a loss. For instance, at the price of $76, she can exercise the option by buying the stock at $75 and selling them for $76. However, with a premium of $3 to be paid, she incurs a loss of $2 on her investment. At the price of $78, tayo breaks even and at any price beyond that she makes a profit from this call option. On the other hand, put options are purchased by investors who expect a fall in price of assets. The contract is set at a predetermined rate lower than the current market price, so if prices do plunge further investors earn a profit from put option. This leverage allows speculative investments to be used to take advantage of specific profit opportunities or to insure a portfolio against risk. For an options contract, there has to be a corresponding seller (or writer) to the purchaser of an option, who is prepared to accept the increased risk exposure and the premium has to be large enough to compensate risk. The buyer of a call option acquires the right to buy specified instrument. For example, an investor who speculates that euro will rise against the US dollar could buy a euro surplus giving the right to buy euro at a specified price, say $0. 60 =? 1. If the spot exchange rate were to rise to $0. 68 =? 1, the option holder could acquire euro at $ 0. 60 under the terms of the option and sell them in the spot market at $0. 68. As the price of the underlying product rises, so too will the profit that can be made from exercising the option. The buyer of a call option thus assumes a long position in the underlying product. Swaps are a huge market. The first major example of a derivative trade occurred between the World Bank and IBM in 1983. The World Bank was lending in Swiss Francs and wanted to borrow in Swiss Francs, but it had depleted all its borrowing options, hence it faced rising costs. On the other hand, IBM was a dollar borrower but had never borrowed in Swiss Francs as it had no use for the currency. Nonetheless, Salomon Brothers, the investment bank set up a deal with IBM because IBM could borrow Swiss Francs at a cheaper rate than the World Bank could, so both institutions borrowed currencies they did not need. IBM in Swiss Francs and World Bank in dollars, this was done simultaneously and they converted proceeds into currencies they did need. Salomon Brothers was the Ã¢â¬ËwriterÃ¢â¬â¢ of the debt obligation and because of their dealings with each other; both institutions faced a lower interest rate. All of the above gives evidence that derivatives are a powerful instrument in combating risks and making profits from speculation amongst other. However, Warren Buffet warns that derivatives are not without its curses. He likens derivatives to Ã¢â¬Å"hellÃ¢â¬ ¦. easy to enter and almost impossible to leaveÃ¢â¬ and states that increasing trade in it pose a mega-catastrophic risk for the economy as it pushes companies onto a Ã¢â¬Ëspiral that can lead to a corporate meltdownÃ¢â¬â¢. For example, derivatives trading were held partially responsible for the collapse of the stock market in 1987. The story being that stock market trader anticipated a decline in the price of stocks that weekend. Immense orders to sell were made at brokerage houses and many traders automatically sold futures in shares of major corporations. This panic and wrong speculation destabilised stock markets and contributed to the volatility of the cash market. An example closer to home is the losses of ? 91 million made by traders at NatWest Capital Markets (the investment banking arm of the National Westminster Bank in London) in 1995 and 1996 on deutschmark and sterling options. In Conclusion, financial derivatives , although not without faults, has become a major global growth industry as financial agents have become increasingly assertive and innovative in their use of futures, options and swaps to hedge risks and take speculative positions. References 1) http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/2817995. stm Accessed on the 20th April 2010 2) http://www. globalresearch. ca/index. php? context=vaaid=8634 Accessed on the 28th April 2010 3) Howells P Bain K (2007) Financial Markets and Institutions, London: Prentice Hall 4) Mervyn K. Lewis (1999) The Globalization of Financial Services, Cheltenham: Elgar Reference Collection 5) Rutterford J Davison M (2007) An Introduction to Stock Exchange Investment, New York: Palgrave Macmillan 6) Howells P Bain K (2002) The Economics of Money, Banking and Finance, Essex: Pearson Education 7) Henderson R (1993) European Finance, Berkshire: McGraw Hill Book Company 8) Gitman L Madura J (2001) Introduction to Finance, Boston: Addison Wesley 9) Heffernan Shelagh (1996) Modern Banking in Theory and Practice, Chichester: Wiley 10) A. D Bain( 1992) The Economics of the Financial System, Oxford: Blackwell
Friday, March 20, 2020
Essay on The use technology and information resources to research issues in crime and criminal behaviorEssay Writing Service
Essay on The use technology and information resources to research issues in crime and criminal behaviorEssay Writing Service Essay on The use technology and information resources to research issues in crime and criminal behavior Essay on The use technology and information resources to research issues in crime and criminal behaviorThe topic chosen for this project is Ã¢â¬Å"The use technology and information resources to research issues in crime and criminal behaviorÃ¢â¬ . In fact, this topical area is of great importance for criminologists because it highlights the need for using use technology and information resources to facilitate the process of crime investigation. The history of criminology can be effectively used in study of different aspects of criminology through construction of a framework for the study of crime based on the available knowledge of the proper facts, events and individual behaviors (Lawrence, 2012).The topic needs to be researched not only to better understand the nature of criminology and the functioning of criminologists in different periods of time, but also to identify the relationship between the past, present and future aspects of crime investigation. In addition, the chosen topic area needs to be researched to address a wide range of problems and challenges that exist in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s field of criminology. The history of criminology helps to assess the relationship between social structures and criminological ideas (Laub, 2004). Ã Due to this research, it is possible to find solutions to various issues in the field of contemporary criminology based on the use technology and information resources.Defining the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminologyBased on the chosen topic, it is necessary to define the problems and challenges that exist in crime and criminology. The history of criminology allows identifying serious problems connected with the studies of punishment. According to researchers, earlier studies in this field are based primarily on the issues of unemployment (Laub, 2004; Peelo Soothill, 2013). Ã Later studies in this area are focused on the critical assessment and analysis of the trends in punishment.Ã Researcher s explore historical contingencies that reflect the relationship between unemployment and imprisonment. These issues create certain problems in the field of crime and criminology. To make deeper understanding of the key challenges faced by criminology, it is necessary to place emphasis on the new form of knowledge that helps to assess crime trends and criminal behaviors. Actually, criminology is a rather new discipline, although it has its history. Criminology faces some problems connected with certain conflicts that appear within the discipline (Peelo Soothill, 2013). Criminology needs more and more studies to make the discipline less Ã¢â¬Å"staticÃ¢â¬ . As the major task of criminology is to Ã¢â¬Å"explore and explain crimeÃ¢â¬ as social construction, it is necessary to define the boundaries of criminology and the impact of other disciplines on its development (Peelo Soothill, 2013).In general, many challenges face the field of criminology as it continues to grow and become less Ã¢â¬Å"staticÃ¢â¬ . The historical issues that have contributed to the problems and challenges are connected with social, cultural, political and economic changes. According to researchers, there are three major challenges faced the file of crime and criminology. First, Ã¢â¬Å"criminological research has been futileÃ¢â¬ (Laub, 2006, p. 237). Researchers suggest the work of criminologists in the field lacks scientific approaches to the study of the phenomena of crime. Besides, the knowledge provided by the discipline of criminology lacks a comprehensive scientific proposition and conclusion (Laub, 2006). Second, Ã¢â¬Å"the reason for the futility of research in criminology is the incompetence of criminologists in scienceÃ¢â¬ (Laub, 2006, p. 237). Researchers argue that the use of scientific method in the field requires the proper theoretical analysis, observation, and interpretation, which characterize crime and criminology field as Ã¢â¬Å"raw empiricismÃ¢â¬ (Laub, 20 06). Special attention is paid to observation, while the abstractions of analysis are neglected. Researchers suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"the assurance with which criminologists have advanced opinions regarding the causes of crime is in striking contrast to the worthlessness of the data upon which those opinions are basedÃ¢â¬ (Michael Adler, 2003, p. 169). The third problem is that the current methods applied to crime and criminology research are ineffective, and scientists should come to the field of criminology from other fields to improve these methods (Laub, 2006). It has been found that the common sense knowledge used in crime and criminology field is insufficient to effectively address the practical problems regarding crime control. Besides, the descriptive knowledge generated by criminological research fails to increase the role of the common sense knowledge in order to compensate for its insufficiency. Criminology as a science should be constructed not only by criminologists, but also by psychologists, biologists, sociologists or by others.Thus, these problems lead to the failure of criminology to address a wide range of issues connected with crime control (Garland Sparks, 2000; Laub, 2004).The contributions of internal and external stakeholders to the problems and solutions in crime and criminologyThe internal stakeholders can be found inside the field of crime and criminology. They are criminologists, staff members of the criminological organization, its management and the board of directors. The external stakeholders can be found outside the field of crime and criminology. They include the environment, government, the media, and the members of society, clients, victims, and criminals.The internal and external stakeholders contribute to both the problems and the solutions in crime and criminology. They influence the success of the research in crime and criminology and possible outcomes, the historical development of the field and the areas of study. For example, criminologists contribute to finding solutions to the existing problems and challenges through the application of the proper scientific methods and theories. The media and the government contribute both to the problems and solutions in crime and criminology through various policies and programs aimed at crime control (Laub, 2004).Generally speaking, the contributions of internal and external stakeholders to the problems and solutions in crime and criminology should be taken into consideration while conducting a criminological research.Discussion of the data and information that have been collected while conducting research on the topicThe data and information that have been collected while conducting research on the topic can be characterized as valid and reliable. Much information has been taken from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources. The authors of these sources are competent to write about crime and criminology.Moreover, the data relates to the problems and ch allenges in crime and criminology because the authors are interested in critical assessment of criminological research and its findings. The authors of the sources used in this study are focused on exploring the nature of criminology and its impact on crime control.Developing a solution that addresses the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on the research findingsIn order to develop the proper solution that would address the problems and challenges in crime and criminology, based on the research findings, it is necessary to identify three areas that would be addressed:to make improvements in criminological research;to improve the competence of criminologists in the field of crime and criminology;to improve the current methods applied to crime and criminology research, inviting scientists from other fields.Thus, taking into consideration the above mentioned areas, it is necessary to conclude that the problems and challenges in crime and criminology should be addr essed through the application of more effective methods and strategies in criminological research, enhancement of the competence of criminologists in the field of crime and criminology, and the involvement of scientists from other fields to the field of crime and criminology.Ã According to recent findings, the theories of crime can be applied to different disciplines, including psychology, sociology, biology and other disciplines. Criminologists are encouraged to use this knowledge in a meaningful way.Ã It is necessary to remember that Ã¢â¬Å"misunderstanding of the present is the inevitable consequence of ignorance of the pastÃ¢â¬ (Laub, 2006, p. 250). As a matter of fact many of current issues in the field of crime and criminology have a long and interesting history. Criminologists should pay more attention to the history of criminology in order to effectively apply technology and information resources in the study of crime and criminal behavior (Garland Sparks, 2000). T he history of criminology could be used as the basis for the proper analysis of crime, crime policies, crime rates and other issues.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Where to Find Research Papers Online Discover Google Scholar Where to Find Research Papers Online: Discover Google Scholar Where to find research papers online? If you use Google as your search engine of choice you will be pleased to learn about Google Scholar, GoogleÃ ´s Online search engine for scholarly research, papers, articles books, abstracts and more. It is easy to access and you are able to find everything all in one place. Google Scholar is a very useful tool for students. Across all Disciplines Articles and works in the database are too numerous to list. They include articles from economics, arts, physics, mathematics, social sciences, business, humanities, chemistry, engineering and Google Scholar has a special search for case law. In addition to that, Google Scholar offers specific languages you can search with if you need documents in a language other than English, or if the document was only published in one language. Ã Whatever your subject, give Google Scholar a try first, it will not disappoint. References and Citations As an author of scholarly works, Google scholar offers a citation count and visual aids such as charts, to show you how many times your article has been cited. As a student writing a paper and using the scholarly literature found in Google Scholar, you can cite the referenced work using a link directly from Google Scholar. Google scholar offers the MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard and Vancouver styles of citation. Your Own Library Once you perform a search you can enable your library in Google Scholar. This library is attached to your Google account which means you can access it wherever you log into Google. Once you find a document you want to add to your library simply click save and the article will be in your library for future reference. You can organize your library by document date, adding labels and other useful features. Types of Publications The publications Google Scholar uses are numerous. However, they do maintain a top 100 list if you would like to browse publications. You may also browse by a specific area of interest. The interface is straightforward, logical and user friendly. Search Features Google scholar has several handy search criteria available to narrow your search. You can search by date published, author name, phrase, exact phrase and title search. You can also use an option to exclude certain words or phrases. In addition to that you can search specific sources, such as searching a specific medical journal or publication. Some articles may require subscriptions but much of what is on Google Scholar is free, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t hesitate to use it. You can read many of the articles immediately in GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s PDF reader, and cite them with a click. In addition to that, once you find an article, Google Scholar offers links below the search result for similar articles and search terms included in the current article to give you even more avenues to explore, making research so much easier. Google Scholar is a top notch tool for any student who needs to write a research paperÃ from scratch. Its powerful search capabilities, vast selection of publications and languages and features like the library and citations make this a must have tool.
Monday, February 17, 2020
IMPERIALISM, VEBLEN - Essay Example Even so, the rise of World War 1 proved otherwise, by the time Veblen was writing Absentee Ownership, which he did in 1923; capitalism had done more harm than good. The financial management was poor, the cost was rising and the economy was becoming less productive and less competitive. The fruits of technology were not being realized. That is where Veblen argued that the economy or the market was organized in a way that there was a Ã¢â¬Ëfree lunchÃ¢â¬â¢ privileges for some people. Some group of people could seize the income without really contributing to the production process. The power and ownership of property was rewarded more than labor. At this time, the economy sought to guide the economic policies and those in power only served their own interests. In his entire economic theory, Veblen is critical to the issue of imperialism, militarism, patriotism, nationalism, and emulative consumption. The greatest economist of all time analyzes capitalism as it is reflected in the lar ge corporations, financial institutions, imperialism, militarism and patriotism. He does this by looking at how society is divided into the groups; the leisure class, and the rest of the population. The leisure class is there to exploit the others while the rest of the population is characterized by workmanship which is constantly rejecting leisure group resulting in a social conflict. The social conflicts exist in much society either in form of slavery, feudalism or capitalism. As a result, the society is divided into two distinct classes (Veblen 12). In modern times, they can be termed as the exploit and the industry. The industry means innovation or creation of new things while the exploit seizing other peoples work or innovation. For that reason, to maintain the status quo, and prevent war, some form of military must be in place to ensure that war is prevented. In addition, to ensure that the power remains only on the hand of the few patriotism exist to ensure that those who sup ports the status quo are greatly rewarded. Veblen regarded patriotism as the collective expression of what he called the archaic human propensity (Veblen 165). He argued that patriotism was being used by interest of capitalism to legitimize imperialism condemned imperialism on the ground that it retarded the economic growth and it was wasteful. Emulative consumption, according to him was a personal treadmill. This means that there was no possibility of progress. There was no way possible to escape the cycle. According to him, the power to rule over the society depended on the ability to control the ideologies and the emotions of the rest of the society and that was only possible to those who controlled the modes of production. Comparison of VeblenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ideas about Imperialism with Each of HobsonÃ¢â¬â¢s, LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s And LuxemburgÃ¢â¬â¢s Views of Imperialism Imperialism can be defined as the highest stage of capitalism. It is a concept in a left theory of politics which sho ws the aggressive nature and characteristics of modern capitalism. The term, over the time keeps changing in meaning, from the classical Marxist theory to present day. Different scholars have different meaning of what really imperialism means. Hobson, for example, explains it as a symptom of capitalist crisis. According to him, capitalism has moved beyond its competitive stage to another high level characterized by a